ScienceDaily (240)

Mediterranean-style diets linked to better brain function in older adults

Eating foods included in two healthy diets -- the Mediterranean or the MIND diet -- is linked to a lower risk for memory difficulties in older adults, according to a new study.

Could spraying particles into marine clouds help cool the planet?

A first test of humans' ability to modify clouds would help explain the behavior of clouds and aerosols, while also testing a possible future climate emergency measure.

Large, distant comets more common than previously thought

There are about seven times more long-period comets measuring at least 1 kilometer across than previously predicted, suggests new research. The researchers also found that long-period comets are, on average, nearly twice as large as 'Jupiter family' comets, whose orbits are shaped by Jupiter's ...

Physicists master unexplored electron property

While the charge and spin properties of electrons are widely utilized in modern day technologies such as transistors and memories, another aspect of the subatomic particle has long remained uncharted. This is the 'valley' property which has potential for realizing a new class of technology termed ...

Study: Yoga helps back pain among veterans

Those who completed a 12-week yoga program had better scores on a disability questionnaire, improved pain intensity scores, and a decline in opioid use, a study that included 150 veterans with chronic low back pain found. The findings jibe with those from two past clinical trials involving ...

Well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding

Informed decision making depends on the ability to accurately evaluate and understand information about risk, suggests a new study. A state-of-the-science review of the literature concludes that visual aids are beneficial for diverse people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. The ...

Improved imaging of neonatal soft-tissue tumors can help radiologists improve patient care

Better understanding of practical imaging techniques with regard to neonatal soft-tissue tumors can improve patient care, according to an article.

New shark species glows in the dark, weighs about 2 pounds and has a huge nose

Just as "Shark Week" is gearing up, researchers have discovered a new species of shark 17 years in the making. Like finding a needle in a haystack, it was well worth the wait as this elusive creature is yet to be seen in the wild.

Physical activity could combat fatigue, cognitive decline in cancer survivors

A new study indicates that cancer patients and survivors have a ready weapon against fatigue and 'chemo brain': a brisk walk. Researchers looked at the association between physical activity, fatigue and performance on cognitive tasks in nearly 300 breast cancer survivors.

Cognitive cross-training enhances learning, study finds

Just as athletes cross-train to improve physical skills, those wanting to enhance cognitive skills can benefit from multiple ways of exercising the brain, according to a comprehensive new study. The 18-week study of 318 healthy young adults found that combining physical exercise and mild electric ...

Mind-body therapies immediately reduce unmanageable pain in hospital patients

After participating in a single, 15-minute session of certain mind-body therapies, patients reported an immediate decrease in pain levels similar to what one might expect from an opioid painkiller. This study is the first to compare the effects of mindfulness and hypnosis on acute pain in the ...

How fear alone can cause animal extinction

Fear alone may contribute to the extinction of animal populations according to a recent study. When scientists exposed fruit flies to the scent of a praying mantis, a known predator, they found that the risk of extinction increased up to seven fold. The increased risk of extinction occurred because ...

Molecular hitchhiker on human protein signals tumors to self-destruct

Engineers have found that an existing human protein is an ideal carrier for powerful molecules that can signal tumors to self-destruct.

Cosmologists produce new maps of dark matter dynamics

New maps of dark matter dynamics in the Universe have been produced by a team of international cosmologists, outlines a new report.

Study points to penile microbiome as a risk factor for HIV in men

Uncircumcised men with high levels of anaerobic penile bacteria at higher risk for HIV, suggests new research.

High prevalence of evidence of CTE in brains of deceased football players

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy was diagnosed post-mortem in a high proportion of former football players whose brains were donated for research, including 110 of 111 National Football League players, according to a study.

Reversing tissue damage caused by heart attacks?

A new discovery helps to explain how cells which surround blood vessels, called pericytes, stimulate new blood vessels to grow with the hormone 'leptin' playing a key role. Leptin is produced by fat cells which helps to regulate energy balance in the body by inhibiting the appetite. This study may ...

How texting can protect babies from sudden death

Educational videos delivered by text or email successfully encouraged new mothers to use safe sleep practices for their babies, reducing the risk of sudden unexpected infant death, a new study has found.

Feeling stressed during the workday? Playing video games may help

Human factors/ergonomics researchers found that engaging in casual video game play during rest breaks can help restore mood in response to workplace stress.

Secret to giving the perfect gift: Stop being afraid

People would prefer to receive sentimentally valuable gifts, but instead they often receive superficial gifts related to their personal preferences, researchers have found.

Dodder: A parasite involved in the plant alarm system

Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta not only deplete nutrients from their host plants, but also function as important 'information brokers' among neighboring plants, when insects feed on host plants, a team of scientists has discovered.

Symbiosis: Butter for my honey

Textbooks tell us that, in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, the host plant supplies its fungal symbionts solely with sugars, in return for inorganic nutrients. New findings now show that lipids are also on the menu.

Making polymer chemistry 'click'

A research team has developed a faster and easier way to make a class of sulfur-containing plastics that will lower the cost of large-scale production.

Chemical route towards electronic devices in graphene

Essential electronic components, such as diodes and tunnel barriers, can be incorporated in single graphene wires with atomic precision. The goal is to create graphene-based electronic devices with extremely fast operational speeds.

Climate change poses threat to European electricity production

The vulnerability of the European electricity sector to changes in water resources is set to worsen by 2030 as a consequence of climate change, conclude researchers.

New treatment options for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent liver diseases worldwide. The underlying causes involve obesity and decreased physical activity leading to accompanying metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Currently no approved pharmacotherapy is available. Therefore, the aim of a new ...

Cryptococcal meningitis should be classified as a 'neglected tropical disease,' researchers say

Crytococcal meningitis is a deadly invasive fungal infection which affects hundreds of thousands of HIV patients in the late stage of their disease every year.

Secret to cell size found in group underpinning world's biggest food producer

A gene controlling cell size has been identified in a microalgal group which underpins a fifth of the world's food chains.

New chromium-based superconductor has an unusual electronic state

When certain materials are cooled below a critical temperature they become superconductors, with zero electrical resistance. An international research team observed an unusual electronic state in new superconductor chromium arsenide. This finding could prove useful in future superconductor research ...

Possible treatment for deadly weight loss

Many cancer patients are susceptible to potentially lethal weight loss. Now researchers understand better why this happens, and perhaps how to prevent the condition.

Large single-crystal graphene is possible, say scientists

The target of large, cheap and quick graphene synthesis has been achieved, report researchers in a new article.

New strategy to design mechano-responsive luminescent materials

Crystals made from gold complexes change color as they change structure from chiral' to achiral' when ground, report researchers.

Humans imitate in unique ways: Comparing children and bonobos

A new study compared children's capacity to imitate behavior with the same capacity of humans' closest living great ape relatives, the bonobos. The study found that bonobos do not copy actions as children do, which highlights the unique nature of human imitation.

Violent sleep patterns, stress hormones change after a violent crime in the neighborhood

Violent crime changes youth's sleep patterns the night immediately following the crime and changes patterns of the stress hormone cortisol the following day, new research shows. Both may then disrupt academic performance in students.

Dragonfly brains predict the path of their prey

New research has shown how a dragonfly's brain anticipates the movement of its prey, enabling it to hunt successfully. This knowledge could lead to innovations in fields such as robot vision.

Pattern of marijuana use during adolescence may impact psychosocial outcomes in adulthood

A pattern of escalating marijuana use in adolescents is linked to higher rates of depression and lower educational accomplishments in adulthood.

Ingestible drug-delivery materials may help patients comply with treatment regimens

To ensure patients receive full medicinal treatments, engineers have developed a new set of hydrogel-based drug delivery materials, which can live in the stomach up to nine days, slowly releasing medication.

People living in rural households have lower risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease

Living in rural households decreases a person's risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease, particularly for young children and adolescents, according to a new study.

Clues to healing spinal cord injuries

Fresh insights into how zebrafish repair their nerve connections could hold clues to new therapies for people with spinal cord injuries. Researchers have pinpointed key molecules that prompt damaged nerve fibers in the fish to regenerate themselves.

Toddlers begin learning rules of reading, writing at very early age, study finds

New research suggests that children as young as 3 already are beginning to recognize and follow important rules and patterns governing how letters in the English language fit together to make words.

Dog walking could be key to ensuring activity in later life

Regularly walking a dog boosts levels of physical activity in older people, especially during the winter, a new study has shown. Researchers found that owning or walking a dog was one of the most effective ways to beat the usual decline in later-life activity, even combatting the effects of bad ...

Advancing knowledge toward more efficient electronics

A recent discovery of a new magnetic semimetal could eventually lead to more energy-efficient computers, televisions, radios and other electronics.

Benefits of continued statin use after adverse reactions

A new study explores outcomes for patients who continue receiving statins after experiencing an adverse reaction, finding that they had a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events.

Statin denial is an Internet-driven cult with deadly consequences

A researcher says that Internet propaganda promoting bizarre and unscientific criticisms of statins has given these life-saving drugs a bad reputation.

Genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 prevents angiogenesis of the retina

A research team has successfully prevented mice from developing angiogenesis of the retina -- the sensory tissue at the back of the eye -- using gene-editing techniques with CRISPR-Cas9.

Multitasking monolayers

Two-dimensional materials that can multitask. That is the result of a new process that naturally produces patterned monolayers that can act as a base for creating a wide variety of novel materials with dual optical, magnetic, catalytic or sensing capabilities.

New vaccine production could improve flu shot accuracy

For decades, vaccine manufacturers have used chicken eggs to grow the flu virus strains included in the seasonal vaccine. But because these human strains frequently mutate to adapt to their new environment, the resulting vaccine is often an imperfect match to the virus that it is supposed to protect ...

Biological pest management: Infected insects cause a stink

Researchers have shown how nematodes use smell to seek out uninfected insects, which they then enter and kill. The findings support the group's long-term goal of improving how gardeners and the agricultural industry use nematodes in biological pest management.

High-temperature superconductivity in B-doped Q-carbon

Researchers have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material.

Construction of massive neutrino experiment kicks off a mile underground

A new era in international particle physics research officially began July 21 with a unique groundbreaking held a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Dignitaries, scientists and engineers from around the world marked the start of construction of a massive ...