ScienceDaily (246)

New discovery to accelerate development of salt-tolerant grapevines

A discovery is likely to improve the sustainability of the Australian wine sector and significantly accelerate the breeding of more robust salt-tolerant grapevines.

Imaging technique shows progress Alzheimer's disease

Using 'Raman' optical technology, scientists can now produce images of brain tissue that is affected by Alzheimer's disease. The images include the surrounding areas, already showing changes.

Neurobiology: The chemistry of memory

Learning requires the chemical adaptation of individual synapses. Researchers have now revealed the impact of an RNA-binding protein that is intimately involved in this process on learning and memory formation and learning processes.

'Lost' 99% of ocean microplastics to be identified with dye?

The smallest microplastics in oceans, which go largely undetected, can be identified more effectively with an innovative and cheap new method, report researchers. The new method can detect microplastics as small as the width of a human hair, using a fluorescent dye. Previous scientific field work ...

Climate change could increase volcano eruptions

Shrinking glacier cover could lead to increased volcanic activity in Iceland, warn scientists in a new report.

Hunting for the finest droplet

Modern passenger airplanes already consume less than three liters fuel per one hundred kilometers and passenger. Scientists are currently working on further improving this value. In addition, engineers plan to optimize the combustion process such that exhaust gas emission is reduced considerably. ...

Highly charged molecules behave paradoxically

Chemistry researchers have now discovered how certain small biomolecules attach to one another. The researchers' study also overturns the standard picture – particles with the same electrical charge appear to be drawn together and not vice versa. The results may be important for the development of ...

Flamingo feces and their way of walking stimulate organic matter filtering in saline wetlands

The greater flamingo facilitates microbial 'filtering' of organic matter in saline wetlands, thus improving water quality and reducing nitrogen loads by promoting denitrification, research concludes. This is a facilitating role these animals possess which was unknown until now.

Radiographs of Dolly's skeleton show no signs of abnormal osteoarthritis

Original concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis in Dolly the sheep are unfounded, report experts.

Key to regenerating blood vessels discovered

A signaling pathway that is essential for angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, has been discovered by researchers. The findings may improve current strategies to improve blood flow in ischemic tissue, such as that found in atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular ...

China's reversing emission flows revealed by research

The flow of China's carbon emissions has reversed, according to new research. The study estimates the carbon implications of recent changes in the country's economic development patterns and role in international trade since the global financial crisis.

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

While the world focuses on controlling global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels, less attention has been paid to the capacity of vegetation and soils to take up and store carbon. A remote field site in the Norwegian mountains is improving our understanding of carbon ...

Ocean floor mud reveals secrets of past European climate

Samples of sediment taken from the ocean floor of the North Atlantic Ocean have given researchers an unprecedented insight into the reasons why Europe's climate has changed over the past 3,000 years.

New batteries with better performance, improved safety

Currently the most important technology for batteries is the lithium-ion battery technology, but the technology is expensive and contains a flammable liquid. To satisfy the growing demand from emerging markets, researchers have devised a new battery prototype: known as "all-solid-state," this ...

Glucocorticoids offer long-term benefits for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormone medications often prescribed to patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, offer long-term benefits for this disease, including longer preservation of muscle strength and function and decreased risk of death.

Four simple tests could help GPs spot pneumonia and reduce unnecessary antibiotics

Testing for fever, high pulse rate, crackly breath sounds, and low oxygen levels could be key to helping GPs distinguish pneumonia from less serious infections, according to a large study.

By saving cost and energy, the lighting revolution may increase light pollution

Municipalities, enterprises, and households are switching to LED lights in order to save energy. But these savings might be lost if their neighbors install new or brighter lamps. Scientists fear that this 'rebound effect' might partially or totally cancel out the savings of individual lighting ...

EU trade ban brings down global trade in wild birds by 90 percent

Trade of wild birds has dropped 90 percent globally since EU banned bird imports in 2005. A new study demonstrates how it decreased the number of birds traded annually from 1.3 million to 130,000. International trade of wild birds is a root cause of exotic birds spreading worldwide.

New approach to tracking how deadly 'superbugs' travel could slow their spread

Using a real-world outbreak as a test case, a team combined patient-transfer data and whole-genome sequencing to identify hotspots for transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Bowhead whales come to Cumberland Sound in Nunavut to exfoliate

Aerial drone footage of bowhead whales in Canada's Arctic has revealed that the large mammals molt and use rocks to rub off dead skin.

Women prefer getting mammograms every year

Women prefer to get their mammograms every year, instead of every two years, according to a new study.

One-size treatment for blood cancer probably doesn't fit all, researchers say

Though African-American men are three times more likely to be diagnosed with a blood cancer called multiple myeloma, most scientific research on the disease has been based on people of European descent. That trend is problematic considering that African-Americans -- the most at-risk population for ...

Prion protein found in skin of CJD patients

Scientists have detected abnormal prion protein in the skin of several people who died from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . The scientists also exposed healthy mice to skin extracts from two CJD patients, and all developed prion disease. The study results raise questions about the possible ...

Reducing phosphorus runoff

Researchers test a variety of incentives to learn how best to motivate farmers to curb phosphorus runoff.

Ribbed mussels could help improve urban water quality

Ribbed mussels can remove nitrogen and other excess nutrients from an urban estuary and could help improve water quality in other urban and coastal locations, according to a study in New York City's Bronx River. The findings are part of long-term efforts to improve water quality in the Bronx River ...

Engineers model the California reservoir network

An empirical model of 55 of California's major reservoirs reveals how they respond to shifting drought conditions and to one another.

Meningococcal vaccine could protect against 91 percent of targeted bacterial strains

Up to 91 percent of bacterial strains causing a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults are likely to be covered by a four-component vaccine called MenB-4C , according to laboratory studies.

Nanosponges show promise for potentially blinding eye infections

Using a mouse model that engineered nanosponges can be used to protect eyes from infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis, researchers demonstrate. Enterococcus faecalis contain a toxin called cytolysin, which is found in roughly 50 percent of isolates that cause post-operative intraocular ...

Quantum internet goes hybrid

Researchers report the first demonstration of an elementary link of a hybrid quantum information network, using a cold atomic cloud and a doped crystal as quantum nodes as well as single telecom photons as information carriers. The study demonstrates the communication and transmission of quantum ...

Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

New research on oxygen and iron chemistry under the extreme conditions found deep inside the Earth could explain a longstanding seismic mystery called ultralow velocity zones. The findings could have far-reaching implications on our understanding of Earth's geologic history, including life-altering ...

Encouraging oxygen's assault on iron may offer new way to kill lung cancer cells

Blocking the action of a key protein frees oxygen to damage iron-dependent proteins in lung and breast cancer cells, making them easier to kill, report investigators.

Low-salt, heart-healthy dash diet as effective as drugs for some adults with high blood pressure

A study of more than 400 adults with prehypertension, or stage 1 high blood pressure, found that combining a low-salt diet with the heart-healthy DASH diet substantially lowers systolic blood pressure -- the top number in a blood pressure test -- especially in people with higher baseline systolic ...

Increased use of ambulatory surgery centers for cataract surgery

Over the past decade there's been a dramatic increase in the proportion of cataract surgeries performed at ambulatory surgery centers. In some communities nearly all cataract surgeries are done in a surgery center rather than a hospital. Consumers save money from the shift but it may impact access ...

Big data creates family tree of constitutions

Researchers have constructed a big data, evolutionary taxonomy of the world's constitutions resulting in a mathematically-derived genealogy of founding documents.

How Earth stops high-energy neutrinos in their tracks

For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of ...

Study questions exclusion of cancer survivors from trials

A quarter of newly diagnosed cancer patients 65 or older are survivors who had a prior cancer – often preventing them from participating in clinical trials, researchers have found.

Frictional heat powers hydrothermal activity on Enceladus

A computer simulation shows how icy moon heats water in a porous rock core. This study also offers among others an answer to the long-standing question of where the energy that can support water in liquid form on a small, cryovulcanic moon far from the sun comes from.

Do birdsong and human speech share biological roots?

Do songbirds and humans have common biological hardwiring that shapes how they produce and perceive sounds? Scientists who study birdsong have been intrigued for some time by the possibility that human speech and music may be rooted in biological processes shared across a variety of animals. Now, ...

Desert ants cannot be fooled

Cataglyphis fortis desert ants can learn visual or olfactory cues to pinpoint their nest, but only if these cues are unique to specify the nest entrance. Scientists have discovered that the insects ignore visual landmarks or odors as nest-defining cues, if these occur not only near the nest but also ...

Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe

A research team has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age . Analysis of these samples suggests that the Stone Age Plague entered Europe during the Neolithic with a large-scale migration of people from ...

Intranasal ketamine has more minor side effects than intranasal fentanyl in children with acute pain

Minor adverse events occur more frequently with intranasal ketamine than with intranasal fentanyl in children with suspected extremity fractures, research shows.

How the Earth stops high-energy neutrinos in their tracks

For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of ...

Surprising roles for muscle in tissue regeneration, study finds

Researchers have illuminated an important role for different subtypes of muscle cells in orchestrating the process of tissue regeneration. Notably, in the absence of these muscles, regeneration fails to proceed.

Lightning, with a chance of antimatter

Researchers find that lightning strikes causes photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating antimatter.

New mechanisms found of cell death in neurodegenerative disorders

New mechanisms of cell death have now been discovered, which may be involved in debilitating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, report scientists.

How to cut your lawn for grasshoppers

Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after jumping?

New method to measure neutron star size uses modeling based on thermonuclear explosions

Neutron stars are made out of cold ultra-dense matter. How this matter behaves is one of the biggest mysteries in modern nuclear physics. Researchers developed a new method for measuring the radius of neutron stars which helps them to understand what happens to the matter inside the star under ...

New composite material made of carbon nanotubes

Due to their unique properties, carbon nanotubes would be ideal for numerous applications, but to date they cannot be combined adequately with other materials, or they lose their beneficial properties. Scientists have developed an alternative method of combining, so they retain their characteristic ...

Genetic factors linked to acquired narrowing of the airway

Endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy are widely used in the hospital setting for elective surgery and in cases of serious illness or critical injury. In rare instances the procedures result in the development of scarring and narrowing of the larynx and trachea, or acquired laryngotracheal ...

Growing teeth and a backbone: Studies trace early origins of skeletal tissues

Two new studies on the evolutionary origin of teeth and of vertebra further illuminate the human connection to marine organisms that goes back millions of years. Both studies were conducted in the little skate .