ScienceDaily (222)

Measuring patients' muscles to predict chemotherapy side effects

Measuring patients' muscle mass and quality could potentially help doctors better identify patients at high risk for toxic side effects that could require hospitalizations, researchers report.

Scientists decipher the nanoscale architecture of a beetle's shell

A professor of mechanical and materials engineering has found a way to analyze the fibrous nanostructure of a beetle's lightweight but durable shell.

What is high lipoprotein, and should I be concerned?

Elevations in a unusual form of cholesterol, called Lipoprotein or Lp, as responsible for 1 in 14 heart attacks and 1 in 7 cases of aortic valve disease, research has found.

Tiny fibers open new windows into the brain

For the first time, a single multifunction flexible fiber no bigger than a human hair, has successfully delivered a combination of optical, electrical and chemical signals back and forth into the brain.

Researchers take broad look at stem cells

Scientists have focused recent work on the study of and utility of adult-derived stem cells. The team put together the review after recognizing that the medical and general communities have limited knowledge about the various types of stem cells and how they could be used in medicine.

Autism risk linked to herpes infection during pregnancy

Women actively infected with genital herpes during early pregnancy had twice the odds of giving birth to a child later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder , according to a study.

From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'

Plumbing a 90 million-year-old layer cake of sedimentary rock in Colorado, a team of scientists has found evidence confirming a critical theory of how the planets in our solar system behave in their orbits around the sun. The finding is important because it provides the first hard proof for what ...

Researchers uncover brain circuitry central to reward-seeking behavior

Scientists have found that as mice learn to associate a particular sound with a rewarding sugary drink, one set of prefrontal neurons becomes more active and promotes reward-seeking behavior while other prefrontal neurons are silenced, and those neurons act like a brake on reward-seeking.

'Quartz' crystals at Earth's core power its magnetic field

Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology report in Nature unexpected discoveries about the Earth's core. The findings include insights into the source of energy driving the Earth's magnetic field, factors governing the cooling of the core and its chemical ...

Simple rule predicts when an ice age ends

A simple rule can accurately predict when Earth's climate warms out of an ice age, according to new research.

Study suggests new therapy for Gaucher disease

Scientists propose that blocking a molecule that drives inflammation and organ damage in Gaucher, and maybe other lysosomal storage diseases, as a possible treatment with fewer risks and lower costs than current therapies. The team conducted the study in mouse models of lysosomal storage disease and ...

CAR T cells more powerful when built with CRISPR, researchers find

Researchers have harnessed the power of CRISPR/Cas9 to create more-potent chimeric antigen receptor T cells that enhance tumor rejection in mice.

Brain-machine interfaces: Bidirectional communication at last

A prosthetic limb controlled by brain activity can partially recover the lost motor function. Neuroscientists asked whether it was possible to transmit the missing sensation back to the brain by stimulating neural activity in the cortex. They discovered that not only was it possible to create an ...

Scientists discover how essential methane catalyst is made

New ways to convert carbon dioxide into methane gas for energy use are a step closer after scientists discovered how bacteria make a component that facilitates the process. Recycling CO2 into energy has immense potential for making these emissions useful rather than a major factor in global warming. ...

NASA telescope reveals largest batch of Earth-size, habitable-zone planets around single star

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water.

Hidden no more: First-ever global view of transshipment in commercial fishing industry

A new report released today presents the first global map of transshipment, a major pathway for illegally caught and unreported fish to enter the seafood market. Also associated with drug smuggling and slave labor, it is Illegal in many cases, and has been largely invisible until now. Using an ...

Itch neurons play a role in managing pain

There are neurons in your skin that are wired to sense itchy things. These neurons are separate from the ones that detect pain, and yet, chemical-induced itch is often accompanied by mild pain such as burning and stinging sensations. But when it comes to sending signals toward your brain through ...

Proteins in your runny nose could reveal a viral infection

It may seem obvious, but the key to confirming whether someone is suffering from a cold or flu virus might lie at the misery's source -- the inflamed passages of the nose and throat. Scientists have identified a group of proteins that, when detected in specific quantities in the mucous, are 86 ...

Making it harder to 'outsmart' concussion tests

Concussion testing on the athletic field depends upon comparing an athlete's post-concussion neurocognitive performance with the results of a previously administered baseline test. Experts believe some athletes, in hopes of a quicker post-injury return to play, may 'sandbag' the concussion test by ...

Changing the environment within bone marrow alters blood cell development

Researchers report they can alter blood cell development through the use of biomaterials designed to mimic characteristics of the bone marrow.

High blood pressure reversed in offspring of hypertensive rats

Researchers have demonstrated how harmful health complications passed from mother rats to their offspring can be reversed. The tests may point the way toward preventing the transfer of certain health conditions from human mothers to their children.

Insight into a physical phenomenon that leads to earthquakes

Researchers provide insight into a phenomenon called ageing that leads to more powerful earthquakes.

We read emotions based on how the eye sees

We use others' eyes -- whether they're widened or narrowed -- to infer emotional states, and the inferences we make align with the optical function of those expressions, according to new research. The research reveals, for example, that people consistently associate narrowed eyes -- which can ...

Brain scans could predict teens' problem drug use before it starts

There's an idea out there of what a drug-addled teen is supposed to look like: impulsive, unconscientious, smart, perhaps -- but not the most engaged. While personality traits like that could signal danger, not every adolescent who fits that description becomes a problem drug user. So how do you ...

Asthma drugs could prevent prevent deadly form of pneumonia, research suggests

Two drugs used to treat asthma and allergies may offer a way to prevent a form of pneumonia that can kill up to 40 percent of people who contract it, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have found.

Historic cultural records inform scientific perspectives on woodland uses

Scientists have investigated how cultural records dating back 300 years could help improve understanding of the ways in which science interprets the many uses of woodland areas.

Birds of a feather mob together

Dive bombing a much larger bird isn't just a courageous act by often smaller bird species to keep predators at bay. It also gives male birds the chance to show off their physical qualities in order to impress females, according to new research on predator mobbing behavior of birds where potential ...

What do your co-workers really think of you?

Everyday in the workplace, colleagues actively compete for a limited amount of perks, including raises, promotions, bonuses and recognition. But new research shows that, more than often than not, people fall short in determining which co-workers might be trying to edge them out on the job.

Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood

In a land where survival is precarious, Komodo dragons thrive despite being exposed to scads of bacteria that would kill less hardy creatures. Now in a study, scientists report that they have detected antimicrobial protein fragments in the lizard's blood that appear to help them resist deadly ...

Hybrid plant breeding: Secrets behind haploid inducers, a powerful tool in maize breeding

A common strategy to create high-yielding plants is hybrid breeding. However, getting the inbred lines in the first place can be a hassle. In maize, the use of so-called 'haploid inducers' provides a short cut to this cumbersome procedure, allowing to produce inbred lines in just one generation. A ...

Nanostraws sample a cell's contents without damage

Tiny nanostraws that sample the contents of a cell without causing damage may improve our ability to understand cellular processes and lead to safer medical treatments.

A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates

Found only in the retinas of humans and other primates, the fovea is responsible for visual experiences that are rich in colorful, spatial detail. Some reasons behind the fovea's unusual perceptual qualities have now been uncovered. Understanding these functions would be essential to designing ...

Ants stomp, termites tiptoe: Predator detection by a cryptic prey

Secretive and destructive, termites live in close proximity to predatory ants yet still outsmart them. New research shows why -- termites have evolved the capability to sense vibrations of their enemies in the substrate while moving quickly, quietly and efficiently.

Unravelling the atomic and nuclear structure of the heaviest elements

Little is known about the heaviest, radioactive elements in Mendeleev's table. But an extremely sensitive technique involving laser light and gas jets makes it possible for the very first time to gain insight into their atomic and nuclear structure.

Resveratrol may be an effective intervention for lung aging

Researchers demonstrate, for the first time that inhaled resveratrol treatments slow aging-related degenerative changes in mouse lung. Lung aging, characterized by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function, is a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases.

Blood ties fuel cooperation among species, not survival instinct

Survival instinct does not influence species cooperative breeding decisions, a new study has found. Instead, it has found communal living and helping behavior, to be a natural result of monogamous relationships reinforcing stronger genetic bonds in family groups. Siblings with full biological ties ...

Researchers find potential bugs to eat invasive cogongrass

Cogongrass displaces pasture grass, golf course greens and valuable ecosystems. Now researchers are focusing on the Orseolia javanica midge that causes cogongrass to produce linear galls at the expense of leaves.

Device will rapidly, accurately and inexpensively detect zika virus at airports and other sites

About the size of a tablet, a portable device that could be used in a host of environments like a busy airport or even a remote location in South America, may hold the key to detecting the dreaded Zika virus accurately, rapidly and inexpensively using just a saliva sample. For about $2 and ...

No spoilers! Most people don't want to know their future

Given the chance to see into the future, most people would rather not know what life has in store for them, even if they think those events could make them happy, according to new research.

Benefits of cognitive training in dementia patients unclear

Positive effects of cognitive training in healthy elderly people have been reported, but data regarding its effects in patients with dementia is unclear, say investigators.

Risk of Ross River virus global epidemic

Australia's Ross River Virus could be the next mosquito-borne global epidemic, according to a new research study.

'Smart' bacteria remodel their genes to infect our intestines

Researchers have described how infectious bacteria can sense they're attached to our intestinal cells, and then remodel their expression of specific genes, including those involved in virulence and metabolism, to exploit our cells and colonize our gut.

The first Iberian lynx infected by the pseudorabies virus

Matojo, the nine-month-old Iberian lynx cub found dead in 2015 in Extremadura, did not die from natural causes. His necropsy shows that it was the pseudorabies virus that triggered his sudden demise. Before this case, contagion of this infectious disease was only known in one wild cat in the world, ...

Superfluid is now helping brain surgeons

A superfluid, which resembles brain tissue, makes ultrasound images easier to interpret during an operation. This will make it easier for surgeons to remove brain tumors more accurately, say researchers.

New tool developed to help avoid adverse drug reactions

Medicines are an important part of treating and preventing disease in adults and children. Now researchers have developed a new tool to help avoid adverse reactions to medicines.

A problem shared can be a problem doubled

Customers perceive one and the same service problem very differently, depending on whether they are affected as individuals or in a group, investigators have found. Service failures that affect a group of customers cause them to be more annoyed with the provider than problems that impact an ...

Obesity reprograms muscle stem cells

Obesity is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired metabolism. Epigenetic changes that affect the formation of new muscle cells may be a contributing factor, according to new research.

Reduction of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions: Promotion or steering?

Policy interventions to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions have a variety of effects on the economy and on households. A study has provided the first detailed impact assessment of the efficiency and social balance of the energy policy measures steering' and promotion.'

Estrogen therapy shown effective in reducing tooth and gum diseases in postmenopausal women

Estrogen therapy has already been credited with helping women manage an array of menopause-related issues, including reducing hot flashes, improving heart health and bone density, and maintaining levels of sexual satisfaction. Now a new study suggests that the same estrogen therapy used to treat ...

Surprising dunes on comet Chury

Surprising images from the Rosetta spacecraft show the presence of dune-like patterns on the surface of comet Chury. Researchers have studied the available images and modeled the outgassing of vapor to try to explain the phenomenon. They show that the strong pressure difference between the sunlit ...