ScienceDaily (249)

Seasonal warming leads to smaller animal body sizes

Changes in the body size of animals measured under controlled laboratory conditions have been shown to closely match changes in body size with seasonal warming in nature, according to research.

Law of physics explains natural drivers of wealth inequality

A engineering professor has proposed an explanation for why the income disparity in America between the rich and poor continues to grow. According to the constructal law of physics, income inequality naturally grows along with the economy.

Man with quadriplegia employs injury bridging technologies to move again -- just by thinking

A subject who was paralyzed below his shoulders in a bicycling accident, is believed to be the first person with quadriplegia in the world to have arm and hand movements restored with the help of two temporarily implanted technologies. A brain-computer interface with recording electrodes under his ...

Tiny bacterium provides window into whole ecosystems

Research on Prochlorococcus, the most abundant life form in the oceans, shows the bacteria's metabolism evolved in a way that may have helped trigger the rise of other organisms, to form a more complex marine ecosystem with overall greater biomass.

Elevating women's status lowers dependence on solid fuels

A new research paper finds that in countries where gender inequalities are most pronounced, women are much more likely to be exposed to solid fuel -- including burning from wood, crop wastes, charcoal, and dung -- and its negative consequences.

Elevated blood pressure not a high mortality risk for elderly with weak grip

A study of nearly 7,500 Americans age 65 or older suggests that elevated blood pressure is not related to high mortality risk among people in that age group with weak grip strength.

Fairy circles of Namibia: New research helps scientists gain insight

New insights have been gained into one of nature's great mysteries: the fairy circles of Namibia. Numbering in the millions, the so-called fairy circles are in the eastern, interior margin of the coastal Namib Desert, stretching from southern Angola to northern South Africa. They range in size from ...

Sun: Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

Recent images have revealed the emergence of small-scale magnetic fields in the lower reaches of the corona researchers say may be linked to the onset of a main flare.

How a young-looking lunar volcano hides its true age

A young-looking volcanic caldera on the Moon has been interpreted by some as evidence of relatively recent lunar volcanic activity, but new research suggests it's not so young after all.

Alcohol use in veterans with schizophrenia less common than thought; no level safe

US veterans who are being treated for schizophrenia are much less likely to drink any alcohol than the general population. But when they do misuse alcohol, it leads to worsening of their symptoms.

New method to 'fingerprint' HIV developed

A method to analyze the glycan shield on HIV's protective outer glycoprotein has been developed as a potential HIV vaccine candidate, report scientists.

Evolving 'lovesick' organisms found survival in sex

Being 'lovesick' takes on a whole new meaning in a new theory which answers the unsolved fundamental question: why do we have sex?

Potential drugs and targets for brain repair

Researchers have discovered drugs that activate signaling pathways leading to specific adult brain cell types from stem cells in the mouse brain, according to a new study. The results may open new avenues for drug development aimed at treatment of degenerative brain disorders.

Unraveling the functional diversity of longevity gene SIRT1

While the search for elixir of life has captivated human imagination for millennia, researchers around the world have put in efforts to extend healthy lifespan and reduce the burden of morbid diseases in an increasingly aging population. Researchers have now identified a control mechanism within a ...

Lead exposure in childhood linked to lower IQ, lower status jobs, as adults

A long-term study of 565 children who grew up in the era of leaded gasoline has shown that their exposure to the powerful neurotoxin may have led to a loss of intelligence and occupational standing by the time they reached age 38. Ninety-four percent of the children exceeded today's reference value ...

How bacteria hunt other bacteria

A bacterial species that hunts other bacteria has attracted interest as a potential antibiotic, but exactly how this predator tracks down its prey has not been clear. A new study reveals that the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus homes in on its target by taking advantage of fluid forces ...

Malaria parasites 'walk through walls' to infect humans

Researchers have identified proteins that enable deadly malaria parasites to 'walk through cell walls' -- a superpower that was revealed using the Institute's first insectary to grow human malaria parasites. The research has identified two parasite proteins that are the key to this superpower. The ...

Vitamin D, calcium supplementation among older women does not significantly reduce risk of cancer

Among healthy postmenopausal women, supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium compared with placebo did not result in a significantly lower risk of cancer after four years, according to a study.

Celiac disease: Not enough evidence for screening

The current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for celiac disease in asymptomatic persons, the US Preventive Services Task Force has concluded.

Less invasive hysterectomy for early-stage endometrial cancer finds clinical support

Researchers found similar rates of disease-free survival and no difference in overall survival among women who received a laparoscopic or abdominal total hysterectomy for stage I endometrial cancer, according to a study.

Therapies that target dementia in early stages critical to success

Targeting dementia in the earlier stages of the condition could be critical for the success of future therapies, say researchers who have found that the very earliest symptoms of dementia might be due to abnormal stability in brain cell connections rather than the death of brain tissue, which comes ...

Highway to health: New findings point way to more nutritious crops

Researchers have had the closest look yet at the inner workings of a plant's circulatory system. Their findings show how nutrients get from the leaves, where they are produced through photosynthesis, to 'sinks' that can include the fruits and seeds we eat and the branches we process for biofuels.

Can intergenerational cooperation defeat climate change?

Older adults are powerful allies in addressing climate change, say researchers. Research shows that older adults are at risk for the effects of extreme weather events and climate change; but they are also a potential resource for climate action.

A seismic mapping milestone

Using advanced modeling and simulation, seismic data generated by earthquakes, and one of the world's fastest supercomputers, a team of scientists is creating a detailed 3-D picture of Earth's interior. Currently, the team is focused on imaging the entire globe from the surface to the core-mantle ...

Rescuing 11 Asian Elephants from a mud hole

The rescue of 11 Asian Elephants from a mud hole inside the Keo Seima Wildlife Sanctuary, Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia, on 24th March 2017 avoided a tragedy for wildlife conservation in Cambodia.

Discovery of a new regulatory protein provides new tool for stem cell engineering

Bioengineers have discovered a protein that regulates the switch of embryonic stem cells from the least developed 'naïve' state to the more developed 'primed' state. This discovery sheds light on stem cell development at a molecular level.

Brain stimulation improves schizophrenia-like cognitive problems

A new study finds that stimulating the cerebellum in rats with schizophrenia-like thinking problems normalizes brain activity in the frontal cortex and corrects the rats' ability to estimate the passage of time -- a cognitive deficit that is characteristic in people with schizophrenia.

Watching the passage of knotted DNA slip through nanopores

How can long DNA filaments, which have convoluted and highly knotted structure, manage to pass through the tiny pores of biological systems? Scientists used computer simulations to investigate the options available to the genetic material in such situations.

Desktop scanners can be hijacked to perpetrate cyberattacks

The researchers conducted several demonstrations to transmit a message into computers connected to a flatbed scanner. Using direct laser light sources up to a half-mile away, as well as on a drone outside their office building, the researchers successfully sent a message to trigger malware through ...

Prostate screening often occurs without discussion of benefits, risks

Less than a third of men in a large national survey reported talking with their doctor about both the pros and cons of the PSA blood test for prostate cancer, and the likelihood has decreased further since a national panel recommended against the test.

Toward glow-in-the-dark tumors: New fluorescent probe could light up cancer

A fluorescent probe lights up the enzyme beta-galactosidase in a cell culture. The glowing probe-enzyme combination could make tumors fluoresce, allowing surgeons to cut away cancer while leaving healthy tissue intact.

Insurance coverage for IVF increases chance of having baby

Women who pursue in vitro fertilization to become pregnant are more likely to give birth if they have health insurance that covers the procedure, according to new research. The key reason is financial rather than medical: For many people, the high cost for one IVF procedure prohibits women from ...

Vitamin D decreases risk of cancer, new study suggests

Low vitamin D status may increase the risk of cancer, suggests new research. The study is a randomized clinical trial of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on all types of cancer combined.

Understanding predictability, randomness by digging in the dirt

When tilling soil, the blade of the tool cuts through dirt, loosening it in preparation for seeding. The dirt granules are pushed aside in a way that looks random -- but might not be. Now, researchers have found a way to distinguish whether such a process is truly random, or is actually ...

Heated pavement technology tested at Des moines International Airport

Engineers are testing heated pavement technologies at the Des Moines International Airport. They've installed two test slabs of electrically conductive concrete. And the pavement has effectively cleared ice and snow.

Physics can predict wealth inequality

The 2016 election year highlighted the growing problem of wealth inequality and finding ways to help the people who are falling behind. This human urge of compassion isn't new, but the big question that remains to be addressed is why inequality is so difficult to erase.

Abuse accelerates puberty in children

While it has long been known that maltreatment can affect a child's psychological development, new research indicates that the stress of abuse can impact the physical growth and maturation of adolescents as well.

Forests fight global warming in ways more important than previously understood

Trees impact climate by regulating the exchange of water and energy between Earth's surface and the atmosphere, an important influence that should be considered as policymakers contemplate efforts to conserve forested land, said the authors of an international study.

Parents who play Pokémon GO with kids: 'It wasn't really about the Pokémon'

In the first study to survey and interview parents who play 'Pokémon GO' with their children, families report a number of side benefits, including increased exercise, more time spent outdoors and opportunities for family bonding. However, some guilt about screen time persisted.

Ion pairs perform enhanced 'spooky action,' physicists show

Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called 'spooky action at a distance,' in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too.

Interaction among proteins that cause cancer cells to metastasize

Researchers have identified an interaction among proteins that allows cancer cells to grow and metastasize. They say the discovery may play a role in developing a better understanding of how tumors grow in a variety of malignancies, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, colon, lung and skin ...

EPA's controlled human exposure studies of air pollution are warranted

A new report finds these studies are warranted and recommends that they continue under two conditions: when they provide additional knowledge that informs policy decisions and regulation of pollutants that cannot be obtained by other means, and when it is reasonably predictable that the risks for ...

Honesty may not be the best policy for hospital safety grades, study suggests

A new study finds that a well-known hospital grading system may put too much weight on the wrong things. The grades are based in part on hospitals' self-reported use of safety-related protocols. But the study show this had little in common with how a hospital did on independent measurements of ...

Video games influence sexist attitudes

The images and roles of female characters in video games send a powerful message that can influence the underlying attitudes of gamers. Researchers found a link between video game exposure and sexism in a new study of more than 13,000 adolescents.

Early use of marijuana can increase its negative health impacts

The need for age guidelines for marijuana use is the focus of a new study. The findings show that young users report the most impact to their physical and mental health.

About time! Predicting midge seasonality key to reducing livestock diseases

Ecologists have completed a study which informs optimal strategies for control of devastating midge-borne diseases like bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus that affect cattle and sheep in the UK and beyond.

Neurological diseases cost the US Nearly $800 billion per year

A new article reports the most common neurological diseases pose a serious annual financial burden for the nation.

Scientist pioneers new technology, maps giant virus

In an American laboratory, scientists took a DIY approach to build a retrofitted cryo-electron microscope that allowed them to map a giant Samba virus -- one of the world's largest viruses.

Evaluation between maternal mental health and discharge readiness

Mothers with a history of mental health disorders feel less ready for discharge from the NICU than with mothers without a mental health history, new research indicates.

Mustard seeds without mustard flavor

Researchers have successfully developed a new oilseed crop that is much more resistant to heat, drought and diseases than oilseed rape.