ScienceDaily (208)

PET imaging tracks Zika virus infection, disease progression in mouse model

For the first time, scientists have used Positron Emission Tomography imaging to study brain inflammation following Zika virus infection in mice, according to a study. Traditional methods of infectious disease research using animal models provide limited information about disease progression until ...

What motivates men to donate sperm online? World-first study

A world-first study into online sperm donor behavior has revealed the importance men place on their family, friends and the risks associated with donation, has little impact on their motivation or psychology when choosing to donate their sperm to women they meet online.

Metabolism switch signals end for healing hearts

Researchers have identified the process that shuts down the human heart's ability to heal itself, and are now searching for a drug to reverse it. Scientists have shown a metabolic pathway governs the loss of the heart's proliferative capacity.

Managing negative emotions can help pregnant smokers quit

Pregnant smokers are more likely to quit if they can learn to manage negative emotions that lead to smoking, new research indicates.

Molecular motors: Slowing the clockwork

Progress on the way to smart nanomachines: Chemists have modified the synthesis of a molecular motor so as to reduce the speed of its light-driven rotation, thus permitting the researchers to analyze the mechanism of motion in complete detail.

Local epileptic seizure shows long distance interaction

An epileptic seizure may be highly local, but it also influences brain activity at a distance of over ten centimeters from the core. This, in turn, affects the active area, scientists report.

New treatment for osteoporosis provides better protection against fractures

A new treatment for osteoporosis provides major improvements in bone density and more effective protection against fractures than the current standard treatment. This study is the first that compares the effect of two osteoporosis medicines on fractures.

Nanocapsules enable cell-inspired metabolic reactions

Researchers have succeeded in developing capsules capable of producing the bio-molecule glucose-6-phosphate that plays an important role in metabolic processes. The researchers were able to produce the metabolite in conditions very similar to the biochemical reaction inside natural cells.

Ricin only lethal in combination with sugar

Researchers have discovered a means of immunizing cells against the biological weapon ricin, which, they report, is only lethal when combined with sugar.

'Language of stem cells' discovered

Stem cells control the cells around them, inducing them to perform specific functions. This phenomenon of the "language of stem cells", which has now been discovered for the very first time, report investigators.

How eyes get clogged in glaucoma and how to free them

Biologists have found an explanation for the increase in intraocular pressure in glaucoma and a promising therapeutic option to rejuvenate the eye.

Supercontinuum lasers can lead to better bread and beer

Researchers have analyzed whole grains with long near-infrared wavelengths using a new type of light source, the supercontinuum laser. The research has significance for our knowledge of food ingredients and may, for example, eventually lead to better quality of bread and beer.

Graphene and other carbon nanomaterials can replace scarce metals

Scarce metals are found in a wide range of everyday objects around us. They are complicated to extract, difficult to recycle and so rare that several of them have become "conflict minerals" which can promote conflicts and oppression. New research shows that there are potential technology-based ...

Overcoming the brain's fortress-like barrier

Scientists have helped provide a way to better understand how to enable drugs to enter the brain and how cancer cells make it past the blood brain barrier.

Changes in teenage parenthood

The US birth rate hasn't changed for two generations of teenage girls, but other aspects of young parenthood are shifting, especially regarding young fathers.

The brain at work: Spotting half-hidden objects

The human and non-human primate brain is remarkable in recognizing partially hidden objects. A study, conducted during a shape recognition task, shows as more of the shape is hidden, a brain area involved in cognition starts to sends signals to the visual cortex. The findings make the scientists ...

Students' self-concepts of ability in math, reading predict later math, reading attainment

A new longitudinal study looked at how youths' self-concepts are linked to their actual academic achievement in math and reading from middle childhood to adolescence. The study found that students' self-concepts of their abilities in these two academic domains play an important role in motivating ...

Declining queen conch populations are fragmented and that's changing the conservation game

To provide a vital scientific foundation for conservation efforts, an international team has conducted a genetic analysis comparing queen conch at 19 sites throughout the Caribbean. Their findings will help scientists understand how local subpopulations of conch are fragmented throughout the ...

One step closer to lifelike robots

Researchers have developed a 3-D-printable synthetic soft muscle that can lift 1,000 times its own weight. The muscle has intrinsic expansion ability and, unlike previous artificial muscles, it does not require an external compressor or high voltage equipment, signaling a breakthrough in the ...

The wrong first step to revive athletes in cardiac arrest

New research suggests that the main obstacle to an appropriate bystander response during athletes' cardiac arrest could be an apparently widespread myth: that 'tongue swallowing' is a common complication of sudden loss of consciousness that must be avoided or relieved at all costs to prevent death ...

Risks vary widely in drone-human impacts

New research suggests there's wide variation in the risk that unmanned aircraft pose to people on the ground.

Gulf Spill oil dispersants associated with health symptoms in cleanup workers

Workers who were likely exposed to dispersants while cleaning up the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill experienced a range of health symptoms including cough and wheeze, and skin and eye irritation.

Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

Whispering gallery mode resonators rely on a phenomenon similar to an effect observed in circular galleries, and the same phenomenon applies to light. When light is stored in ring-shaped or spherical active resonators, the waves superimpose in such a way that it can result in laser light. ...

Security cameras vulnerable to attacks using infrared light

Researchers have demonstrated that security cameras infected with malware can receive covert signals and leak sensitive information from the very same surveillance devices used to protect facilities.

Emerging disease further jeopardizes North American frogs

A deadly amphibian disease called severe Perkinsea infections, or SPI, is the cause of many large-scale frog die-offs in the United States, according to a new study.

End-of-summer Arctic sea ice extent is eighth lowest on record

Arctic sea ice appeared to have reached its yearly lowest extent on Sept. 13, scientists have reported. Analysis of satellite data showed that at 1.79 million square miles , this year's Arctic sea ice minimum extent is the eighth lowest in the consistent long-term satellite record, which began in ...

Home blood pressure monitoring for hypertension best combined with intensive support

People who monitor their own blood pressure at home are most likely to see a benefit if they combine it with individually tailored intensive support, according to a new systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

Screening for cervical abnormalities in women offered HPV vaccination

Human papillomavirus testing detects a higher number of precancerous cervical lesions than cytology-based Pap smears in a female population including a proportion offered HPV vaccination, according to a new study.

What web browsers and proteins have in common

The discovery of a previously overlooked site on protein molecules may solve a mystery about how proteins are able to carry out specialized functions in living cells.

Groundbreaking investigative effort identifies gonorrhea vaccine candidates

Researchers have identified a pair of proteins that show promise as the basis for a gonorrhea vaccine.

Management studies: Dishonesty shift

Lying comes more easily to people in teams: Behavioral scientists have shown in an experimental study why groups are more likely to behave unethically than individuals.

A study switches from genetic to metabolic analysis to reconstitute evolutionary process

A new method for analyzing a living being chemical compositions is tested in Andean plants and attest the genesis of species by means of geographic isolation. Scientists analyzed chemical compounds which express specific biogeographic trends in the evolutionary process, validating a Smithsonian ...

Wikipedia used to give AI context clues

A team of computer scientists is teaching artificial intelligence agents how to interact with the world in a way that makes sense.

North Atlantic right whales decline confirmed: 458 remaining

Marine biologists have developed a new model to improve estimates of abundance and population trends of endangered North Atlantic right whales, which have declined in numbers and productivity in recent years. Between 1990 and 2010 abundance increased to 482 animals, but since 2010 the numbers have ...

Sleep deprivation is an effective anti-depressant for nearly half of depressed patients, study suggests

Sleep deprivation - typically administered in controlled, inpatient settings - rapidly reduces symptoms of depression in roughly half of depression patients, according the first meta-analysis on the subject in nearly 30 years.

Brain powered: Increased physical activity among breast cancer survivors boosts cognition

It is estimated that up to 75 percent of breast cancer survivors experience problems with cognitive difficulties following treatments, perhaps lasting years. Currently, few science-based options are available to help. Researchers report in a pilot study of 87 female breast cancer survivors an ...

Proteins' role in development of spinal sensory cells redefined

A recent study has overturned a common belief about how a certain class of proteins in the spinal cord regulate the formation of nervous system cells -- called neurons -- during embryonic development.

Mercury's poles may be icier than scientists thought

A new study identifies three large surface ice deposits near Mercury's north pole, and suggests there could be many additional small-scale deposits that would dramatically increase the planet's surface ice inventory.

Advanced lithium-ion and metal-air batteries

Engineers are developing energy storage technologies that are cheaper, safer and more efficient.

Winner takes all: Success enhances taste for luxury goods, study suggests

Footballers in flashy cars, City workers in Armani suits, reality TV celebrities sipping expensive champagne while sitting in hot tubs: what drives people to purchase luxury goods? New research suggests that it may be a sense of being a 'winner' -- but that contrary to expectations, it is not driven ...

One-way track for microwaves based on mechanical interference

Researchers use interference in the motion of a micrometer-size drum to route microwave signals in a single direction.

How to remove a tick and prevent future bites

As tick populations grow and spread across the country, their prevalence is increasing the public's risk for some troubling diseases. Of these diseases, say dermatologists, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Powassan virus and alpha-gal syndrome —- a mysterious red meat allergy -— are ...

Rogue wave analysis supports investigation of the El Faro sinking

A new analysis done to support the investigation into the 2015 sinking of the El Faro cargo ship has calculated the likelihood of a massive rogue wave during Hurricane Joaquin in October of that year – and demonstrated a new technique for evaluating the probability of rogue waves over space and ...

Getting emotional after failure helps you improve next time, study finds

Emotional responses to failure rather than cognitive ones are more effective at improving people's results for the next time they tackle the next related task, new research indicates.

Fluorescence microscopy on a chip: no lenses required

Fluorescence microscopy gives researchers incredible power to illuminate the tiniest structures and capture the real-time activities of live cells by tagging biological molecules with a veritable rainbow of fluorescent dyes. This power comes at a cost: The technology can be expensive and ...

Antibiotics following C-section among obese women reduces risk of surgical infection

Among obese women undergoing cesarean delivery, a postoperative 48-hour course of antibiotics significantly decreased the rate of surgical site infection within 30 days after delivery, according to a study.

Contribution of opioid-related deaths to the change in life expectancy in the US

Between 2000 and 2015 in the US, life expectancy increased overall but drug-poisoning deaths, mostly related to opioids, contributed to reducing life expectancy, according to a study.

How the shape and size of your face relates to your sexuality

Men and women with shorter, wider faces tend to be more sexually motivated and to have a stronger sex drive than those with faces of other dimensions. The research investigates the role that facial features play in sexual relationships and mate selection.

Key regulator of male fertility identifed

When it comes to male reproductive fertility, timing is everything. Now scientists are finding new details on how disruption of this timing may contribute to male infertility or congenital illness. Researchers are identifying the key molecular and genetic switch that activates production of healthy ...

Cell-based therapy success could be boosted by new antioxidant

Cell therapies being developed to treat a range of conditions could be improved by a chemical compound that aids their survival, research suggests. Lab tests found that the human-made molecule -- a type of antioxidant -- helps to shield healthy cells from damage such as would be caused when they are ...