PhysOrg (358)

New metamaterial is proved to be the world's first to achieve the performance predicted by theoretical bounds

In 2015 UC Santa Barbara mechanical engineer and materials scientist Jonathan Berger developed an idea that could change the way people think about high-performance structural materials. Two years later, his concept is paying research dividends.

Genetic data show mainly men migrated from the Pontic steppe to Europe 5,000 years ago

A new study, looking at the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome of prehistoric human remains, shows that hardly any women took part in the extensive migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe approximately 5,000 years ago. The great migration that brought farming practices to Europe 4,000 years ...

Winners, losers among fish when landscape undergoes change

As humans build roads, construct buildings and develop land for agriculture, freshwater ecosystems respond ? but not always in the ways one might expect.

Fermi finds possible dark matter ties in Andromeda galaxy

NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy.

Likelihood of dieting success lies within your tweets

There is a direct link between a person's attitude on social media and the likelihood that their dieting efforts will succeed.

New design for longer lasting night-vision cameras

With the amazing ability to survey areas in complete darkness, night-vision cameras have revolutionized the security industry. But the materials and technology embodied in current cameras tend to degrade under temperature stress, causing night-vision devices to frequently break.

Over time, nuisance flooding can cost more than extreme, infrequent events

Global climate change is being felt in many coastal communities of the United States, not always in the form of big weather disasters but as a steady drip, drip, drip of nuisance flooding.

NASA sees development of South Pacific's Tropical Cyclone Bart

Tropical Cyclone Bart has developed in the Southern Pacific Ocean, and NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of the storm early on Feb. 21.

NASA spots short-lived Tropical Cyclone Alfred

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite captured a visible image of the Southern Pacific Ocean's newly formed tropical cyclone in the Gulf of Carpentaria. By the next day Alfred made landfall and weakened to a remnant low pressure area.

Researchers recalibrate shark population density using data they gathered during eight years of study on Palmyra atoll

Many shark populations around the world are known to have declined over the past several decades, yet marine scientists lack important baseline information about what a healthy shark population looks like. A clearer picture is now coming into focus—thanks to a team of scientists who ...

Historic Manhattan cathedral activates eco-friendly power

The historic St. Patrick's Cathedral in Manhattan has activated a geothermal plant—part of a series of environmentally friendly upgrades.

Chemists reveal novel biocatalysts for bioactive alkaloid synthesis

Alkaloids are natural nitrogen-containing compounds produced by plants and microbes. These molecules, such as morphine and quinine, are important human medicines. Alkaloids are typically polycyclic in nature. While the polycyclic characteristics are important for their bioactivities, these features ...

Engineers overcome a hurdle in growing a revolutionary optical metamaterial

When John Crocker, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering in the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science was a graduate student, his advisor gathered together everyone in his lab to "throw down the gauntlet" on a new challenge in the field.

Science vs. the sea lamprey

Of all the fishy predators in the Great Lakes, few are more destructive than the sea lamprey. There's something of a horror movie in their approach: jawless, they attach to prey such as salmon, whitefish or trout with a sucker mouth and drain the victim of its blood and lymph.

Colorado River flows will keep shrinking as climate warms

Warming in the 21st century reduced Colorado River flows by at least 0.5 million acre-feet, about the amount of water used by 2 million people for one year, according to new research from the University of Arizona and Colorado State University.

New studies quantify the impacts of water use on diversity of fish and aquatic insects in NC streams

The health of fish and aquatic insects could be significantly affected by withdrawals of fresh water from the rivers and streams across North Carolina according to a new scientific assessment.

NASA's SnowEx challenges the sensing techniques... 'until they break'

A NASA-led team will kick off an ambitious airborne campaign to determine which combination of sensors would work best at collecting global snow-water measurements from space—critical for understanding and managing the world's freshwater resources. Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight ...

Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars

New planetary formation models from Carnegie's Alan Boss indicate that there may be an undiscovered population of gas giant planets orbiting around Sun-like stars at distances similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. His work is published by The Astrophysical Journal.

Radiocarbon dating and DNA show ancient Puebloan leadership in the maternal line

Discovering who was a leader, or even if leaders existed, from the ruins of archaeological sites is difficult, but now a team of archaeologists and biological anthropologists, using a powerful combination of radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA, have shown that a matrilineal dynasty likely ruled ...

Scientists combine the ultra-fast with the ultra-small to pioneer microscopy at terahertz frequencies

For the first time ever, scientists have captured images of terahertz electron dynamics of a semiconductor surface on the atomic scale. The successful experiment indicates a bright future for the new and quickly growing sub-field called terahertz scanning tunneling microscopy , pioneered by the ...

Model of CRISPR, phage co-evolution explains confusing experimental results

A Rice University study suggests that researchers planning to use the CRISPR genome-editing system to produce designer gut bacteria may need to account for the dynamic evolution of the microbial immune system.

Prides, protection and parks: Africa's protected areas can support four times as many lions

New York, NY-Africa's protected parks and reserves are capable of supporting three to four times as many wild lions if well funded and managed, according to a new report led by Panthera, the global wild cat conservation organization.

Study details ringed structure of ORC in DNA replication

An international collaboration of life scientists, including experts at Van Andel Research Institute, has described in exquisite detail the critical first steps of DNA replication, which allows cells to divide and most advanced life, including human, to propagate.

New data about two distant asteroids give a clue to the possible 'Planet Nine'

The dynamical properties of these asteroids, observed spectroscopiccally for the first time using the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, suggest a possible common origin and give a clue to the existence of a planet beyond Pluto, the so-called 'Planet Nine.'

Researchers document second case of 'Down syndrome' in chimps

Japanese researchers have confirmed the second case known to science of a chimpanzee born with trisomy 22, a chromosomal defect similar to that of Down syndrome in humans. The report on Kanako, a 24-year-old female chimp born into captivity, was led by Satoshi Hirata of Kyoto University in Japan, ...

Tune your radio: Galaxies sing when forming stars

A team led from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias has found the most precise way ever to measure the rate at which stars form in galaxies using their radio emission at 1-10 Gigahertz frequency range.

Scientists remove reliance on seasonality in new broccoli line, potentially doubling yield

Scientists at the John Innes Centre are developing a new line of fast-growing sprouting broccoli that goes from seed to harvest in 8-10 weeks. It has the potential to deliver two full crops a season in-field or it can be grown all year round in protected conditions, which could help with continuity ...

New approach to measure fluid drag on the body during swimming

A key factor to improve swimming performance is reducing resistance that water exerts on the moving body. This resistance, known as drag, is influenced by factors including the stroke rate, swimmer's size, and swimming speed. The range of factors, along with the motion of the swimmer, have made it ...

DOOMED is new online learning approach to robotics modeling

Robotics researchers have developed a novel adaptive control approach based on online learning that allows for the correction of dynamics errors in real time using the data stream from the robot. The strategy is described in an article published in Big Data.

Scientists present the smallest member of the CRISPR-Cas9 family developed to date

Scientists at the Center for Genome Engineering, within the Institute for Basic Science , in collaboration with KIM Eunji and KIM Jeong Hun have engineered the smallest CRISPR-Cas9 to date, delivered it to the muscle cells and in the eyes of mice via adeno-associated viruses and used it to modify a ...

Cutting-edge cameras reveal the secret life of dolphins

A world-first study testing new underwater cameras on wild dolphins has given researchers the best view yet into their hidden marine world.

Waste silicon sawdust recycled into anode for lithium-ion battery

Researchers have created a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries using waste silicon sawdust.

More black police won't result in fewer police-involved homicides of black citizens

Hiring more black police officers is not a viable strategy for reducing police-involved homicides of black citizens in most cities, according to new Indiana University research that is the first in-depth study of this increasingly urgent public policy question.

Dream of energy-collecting windows is one step closer to reality

Researchers at the University of Minnesota and University of Milano-Bicocca are bringing the dream of windows that can efficiently collect solar energy one step closer to reality thanks to high tech silicon nanoparticles.

Researchers helping intelligence analysts make smart decisions

Researchers at George Mason University are developing a tool combining intelligent computer software and high-level crowdsourcing that will allow intelligence analysts to give sound advice to decision makers in high-pressure situations.

Experiments call origin of Earth's iron into question

New research from The University of Texas at Austin reveals that the Earth's unique iron composition isn't linked to the formation of the planet's core, calling into question a prevailing theory about the events that shaped our planet during its earliest years.

Understanding 'glass relaxation' and why it's important for next-generation displays

Next-generation displays will feature increased resolution and performance, but getting there will require a shift to smaller individual pixel sizes and a tightening of the tolerance for glass relaxation. Display manufacturers can account for a certain level of relaxation in the glass, referring to ...

Tiny nanoclusters could solve big problems for lithium-ion batteries

As devices become smaller and more powerful, they require faster, smaller, more stable batteries. University of Illinois chemists have developed a superionic solid that could be the basis of next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

Mole study shows anyone can be backyard scientist

Scientific findings are awaiting discovery in your backyard. The requirement? A keen sense of observation and patience.

New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half

Successful results of a University of Liverpool-led trial that utilised nanotechnology to improve drug therapies for HIV patients has been presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Seattle, a leading annual conference of HIV research, clinical practice and progress.

Smart buildings: energy efficiency at what price?

Automating heating and other environmental controls can bring huge savings to commercial buildings. To what extent is it possible to achieve the same results in residential homes? What is the difference between so called domotics and inmotics?

Cars and chlamydia killing Queensland koalas

Cars and chlamydia were the top causes of a dramatic rise in south-east Queensland koala deaths over the past two decades, according to a new University of Queensland-led study.

'Gravitational noise' interferes with determining the coordinates of distant sources

Our galaxy's gravitational field limits the accuracy of astrometric observations of distant objects. This is most apparent for objects that are obscured behind the central regions of the galaxy and the galactic plane, where the deviation can be up to several dozen microarcseconds. And more ...

Postwar policies fueled prosperity decades later

Economists call it the Great Moderation: the long stretch of low inflation and steady growth in the United States and seven other developed nations from the mid-1980s until the recession hit in 2007.

Building privacy right into software code

When I was 15, my parents did not allow me to use AOL Instant Messenger. All of my friends used it, so I had to find a way around this rule. I would be found out if I installed the software on my computer, so I used the web browser version instead. Savvy enough to delete my internet history every ...

Gamification motivates consumers to reduce power consumption peaks - pilot sites in Helsinki, Nice and Vienna

In collaboration with the international CITYOPT project, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed an energy planning tool for experts and an application for consumers. The tools have been piloted in Helsinki, Nice and Vienna, with promising results. Local energy costs were reduced by ...

What chess players can teach us about intelligence and expertise

Are experts more intelligent than non-experts or do they just work harder? And why do some people reach high levels of expertise, while others just remain amateurs? These are some of the questions that cognitive scientists have tried to answer for more than a century. Now our new research on chess ...

Breakthrough wireless sensing system attracts industry and government agency interest

Less than two years since its release, interest and demand for Waggle, a wireless environmental sensing platform created at the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, is flourishing among research groups, industry and government entities, its creators say.

Discipline more effective than monetary investment in education: new research

Discipline in schools has a greater impact and is more important to educational performance when compared to monetary investment, a new study from Macquarie University has found.

With net neutrality, researcher says 'not every deal is bad'

Net neutrality advocates want to make sure internet service providers like Comcast and Verizon have minimal control over how users access content on the web. However, new, award-winning research by a Penn State College of Communications faculty member says giving these companies some leeway might ...