Carnegie Endowment (96)

EU Unity Beyond Brexit

The UK's decision to leave the EU offers an opportunity to restructure the union and restore unity among the remaining member states.

U.S. Cyber Command Now Stands Taller, But Can It See Further?

The decision to elevate Cyber Command to a unified combatant command is a positive step for the United States and its international partners-one that reflects growing, global threats in cyberspace.

How Did North Korea Get Nuclear Weapons?

North Korea's motivations for pursuing nuclear capabilities have changed over time, but are rooted in a sense of existential threats coming from outside the regime.

Understanding Climate Engineering

Greater transparency is needed to assess and govern the array of new engineering tools under development to alter the global climate system.

The Misery of Germany's Election Campaign

Germany's main political parties have no new ideas about the country's role in Europe and don't even debate reforms at home.

Hezbollah Re-Ascendant in Lebanon

Hezbollah's branding of its Arsal offensive as a victory for all Lebanese further undermines the Lebanese state as a political and security actor. | عربي

Trump's National Security Strategy: A New Brand of Mercantilism?

Trump could either seek to enhance the United States' position in the current international order or pursue U.S. interests defined in more narrow, neo-mercantile terms.

India at 70

Seventy years ago, independent India was born. Having shaken off the yoke of the British Empire, the country embarked on what was-and remains-the world's most radical democratic experiment.

North Korea Showdown: Europe Can Only Watch

As tensions rise between North Korea and the United States, the European Union has strongly condemned and implemented new sanctions on Pyongyang. Yet Europeans are divided over North Korea's threats and the United States' unpredictable responses.

Some Nuclear Ground Rules for Kim Jong Un

The North Korean nuclear crisis is far from over, and foreclosing escalation pathways is in the best interests of the United States, its allies, and Pyongyang.

Raja Mandala: Undoing the Economic Partition

The tragedy of partition was compounded by the economic division of South Asia, an outcome that did not need to accompany the political separation. India's efforts at regional economic integration will have implications for both peace and development.

Kleptocracy in America

Corruption is not so much a problem for governments as it is an approach to government, one chosen by far too many rulers today.

Modi: Pro Business, Not Pro Markets

Modi has generally been good for business but not always good for a level playing field. His government is pro-business, but it also has a strongly nationalist outlook, and those two things are mutually reinforcing.

Reading PM Modi, Through His Speeches

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's rise to power has featured an oratorical style which enhanced the appeals of his populism.

Responding First as a Leading Power

The emerging concept of India as a “first responder” reflects the country's growing capability and increasing willingness to assume the role of a leading power.

Policing Palestine

EU support for Palestinian security reforms has not increased prospects for a democratic and viable Palestinian state as intended. | عربي

Growing Cyber Activism in Thailand

Cyber activism is a useful complement to other forms of activism but not as a decisive game changer for Thailand's corrosive political divide.

Answering Your Questions On North Korea And Nuclear Weapons

Tensions continue to mount between the U.S. and North Korea, prompting questions on the deterrence relationship and the reliability of North Korea's nuclear capabilities.

Of Nuclear Weapons and Deadly Misconceptions

Uncertainty swirls around the U.S.-Russia nuclear relationship in light of new questions concerning Russian nuclear force advancement and the U.S. response.

Five Things to Know About Japan's Possible Acquisition of Strike Capability

Will Japan finally move toward acquiring offensive strike capabilities for the first time since World War II?

The Deep Roots and Long Branches of Chinese Technonationalism

China's development of strategic technologies is increasingly drawing attention from its economic partners. Observers and non-Chinese firms need to understand that China's interest in strategic technologies has long been a central part of the Chinese policy landscape.

Donald Trump, North Korea and Inconvenient Truths

Denuclearization of the North will not be possible to achieve, if it is possible to achieve at all, unless there is a transformational change in North Korea's relationships with the United States and South Korea.

India and Iran Are Critical to Connectivity in Afghanistan

Regional connectivity projects give Afghanistan a substantive trading alternative to Pakistan and provide a powerful mechanism for trade and economic development.

National Security Analyst Weighs In On North Korea Threats, Trump Comments

As North Korea makes steady progress in its nuclear program, the United States must continue to strive for stability in the Korean peninsula.

Does the U.S. Nuclear Industry Have a Future?

With Westinghouse's pending bankruptcy, the United States must review its nuclear industry and consider possible steps for restoring and growing the sector.

Abadi's Momentary Refuge in Victory

Abadi is using the narrative of victory in Mosul to distract from dire policy issues that cannot be resolved in the near future. | عربي

Time for United States to Reintroduce Weapons to North Korea Region?

North Korea has the offensive capabilities to threaten both its neighbors and the United States. The United States needs to implement an effective response that will level the playing field and reassure its allies in the region.

On North Korea Policy, Iran Tensions, and Why Hillary Lost

Increased tensions between the United States and Iran over the last couple days, along with U.S. President Donald Trump's calls to end the Iran Nuclear Deal, could put Iran on the same path as North Korea as an imminent threat potentially needing military consideration.

External Perceptions of Brazil's Nuclear Policy: Views From Argentina and the United States

Despite recent setbacks to its nuclear program, Brazil remains a significant player in global nuclear matters. Argentina and the United States are the two countries that most closely follow Brazil's nuclear policy and whose opinions matter most to Brazil.

The Kamour Movement and Civic Protests in Tunisia

The Kamour sit-in's self-sufficient organization, open participatory style, mostly peaceful tactics, and realistic demands-along with the government's understanding and relative openness to dialogue-is a model that barely exists in other Arab countries.

Raja Mandala: Doklam's Unintended Consequence

One of the unintended consequences for China from the Doklam crisis would be an India that is forced to think far more strategically about coping with China's power.

Iraqi Kurds' Referendum for Political Relevance

The independence referendum for the Kurdistan Region reflects not just struggles with Baghdad but intra-Kurdish political rivalries that could encourage further conflict. | عربي

How Trump's Iran Threats Could Backfire-in North Korea

If the United States thrusts aside the nuclear deal with Iran-and uses contrived evidence to do so-the message to North Korea and others will be that America's word is disposable and Washington cannot be trusted to honor its commitments.

Should We Fear Artificial Intelligence?

It is necessary to be open-eyed and clear-headed about the practical benefits and risks associated with the increasing prevalence of artificial intelligence.

Defenders of Varna

In spite of the Indian Constitution, democracy, and reservations, the hierarchical view of society finds expression in the defense of caste and reassertion of categories like pure and impure.

Flags as Banners of Nationalism

Flags serve as a powerful symbol of a nation, its ideals, and its people.

Vladimir Putin's Russia Goes Global

Russia's renewed activism isn't about dictating events in particular corners of the world. It is about exploiting opportunities to undermine and hollow out the U.S.-led international order, with its norms of economic openness, democratic accountability and the rule of law.

Can Macron's Gamble to Save the EU Pay Off?

Giving citizens a say on Europe's future could help the EU address multiple problems-as long as governments are willing to accept ideas that fall outside their standard templates for reform.

The Three Sins of Aadhaar

The Silicon Valley ethos of 'too big to fail' and 'lean startups' do not always work-especially not for a national identification project, where nothing can be left to scale, chance, or improvisation.

The Iran Question

India's traditionally neutral position in the Middle East has ended with the landmark Israel visit. The future balancing of India's westward pivot will be determined by a new regional order led assertively be Saudi Arabia, and one which sees Iran as enemy number one.

What Donald Trump Doesn't Get About Diplomacy

The leaked transcripts of U.S. President Donald Trump's two conversations with Mexican and Australian leaders reveals a man so focused on his own needs and requirements that he can't seem to make much room for those of anyone else.

A Russian Perspective on the Impact of Sanctions

In order to force Pyongyang to abandon its nuclear and missiles programs, the international community has imposed a set of tough economic sanctions. Do they work? And what Moscow thinks about them?

Europe's Ebbing Summer

Be it the German election, Brexit, Italy's financial woes, Poland's political troubles, or digitization, the fall will bring no respite for European leaders.

India's Opposition Heads for the Hills

The recent upheaval in Bihar is only the latest signal that the BJP is the new center of political gravity in a country long controlled by the storied Nehru-Gandhi dynasty of the Congress Party.

Increasing Western Tolerance of Russian Overreaction

The West must be more tolerant of Russia's rhetorical hyperbole to guard against both the most dangerous and the most likely challenges emanating from Moscow.

Regime Change in North Korea: Be Careful What You Wish For

While much of the discussion of a North Korean regime collapse focuses on its potential to unleash thousands of refugees and on the economic costs of Korean reunification, the geopolitical and security dangers would be far more consequential for the future stability of Northeast Asia.

We've Seen This Movie Before. In Russia.

Conventional wisdom holds that the present situation in Washington is unprecedented. But veteran Russia-watchers have seen this before. They remember Russia in the 1990s.

Ethnic Identifiability in India: Evidence from a Voter Survey

While Indian voters often misidentify the ethnic identity of their candidate, the degree of error is small but systematic.

Mind the Power Gap

As India settles into an extended military standoff with China in the Himalayas, it can't afford to take its eyes off Beijing's maritime forays in the Indian Ocean.

The Americans Are Back: F-16 for the IAF and F/A-18 for the Indian Navy

Because combat aviation is steadily moving towards the dominance of stealthy platforms, India should be seeking to leverage these purchases towards the development or the acquisition of fifth-generation fighters.